Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve was established in 1976 AD, primarily to protect the grassland, Tappu (small island formed by the Saptakoshi River) and the last habitant of wild buffaloes (called Arnas), spreading in the area of 175 square kilometers and situated in floodplain of the Saptikoshi river (the largest river in Nepal) in south eastern part of Nepal, in Terai (plain with tropical zone ). It has a beautiful artificial lake formed by a kilometer long dam to the north of the Koshi River, which helps to reduce flood damages in the Bihar, a physical state of India.

Due to the marshland of Koshi river and tropical climate, it is very rich in vegetation. The reserve is the home to the wild elephants, the wild water buffalo, deer, Nilgai. The Koshi river itself is home to 80 species of fish including the endangered Gharial crocodile and Gangetic dolphin. Also, it is known as one of the best and finest locations for birdwatching in Asia with more than 500 species of birds, including the globally threatened Swamp Partridge (Francolinus Gularis). The nearby Koshi Barrage has created a vast expanse of water. This makes it the most important staging point for migrating birds, containing 87 winters and trans-Himalayan migratory species. At the same time it is an all year playground for resident ones.

Another most rewarding and greatest asset of the Koshi Tappu Wildlife reserve is, it offers us plenty of nature walking trails. For those with curiosity and perseverance on foot walking is the most profitable way of exploring the meadow, river lagoons and forests. Makalu, the world's fifth highest mountain (8,463m), can be glimpsed on a clear day.

The Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve is accessible by air, land and river. It is only a 45 minutes’ flight to Biratnagar from Kathmandu,  which is a panoramic flight with the glimpse of Eastern Himalayas, including Mt. Everest (8848m) and Kanchenjunga (8586m). After that we have to catch the bus for one and half hour, to reach there in Koshi Tappu wildlife reserve. Also, we can reach there from ten hours of driving from Kathmandu. It is connecting driving to two major physical regions of Nepal, hilly (mountain) to Terai (Plain) region. So, it provides us greater opportunity to understand the different vegetation, lifestyle and differences between people of those regions. It is so interesting and admirable driving, though,  because of the long drive, it may bore and suffocation.  If you are adventurous, then rafting will be a perfect alternative. 8-10 days of rafting over Sunkoshi River, brings us here. It is another exciting way to reach and explore the Koshi Tappu wildlife reserve but we need longer vacation and sufficient courage also it is the most costly way to reach there because of camping.

It has mainly three distinct seasons. Summer (February through May) is intensely hot with minimum precipitation. Shade temperatures can reach 400c. The monsoon starts in late May/early June and lasts until September bringing heavy frequent rainfalls with high humidity. Winter through (December to January) is characterized by clear sky and moderate temperature, but can still get quite cold.
Best Time
The best time to visit is between October to April. In these month,s many migratory and local birds can be sighted.

Best Bird 
The best birds in Koshi are: Swamp Francolin, Black-necked Stork, Lesser Adjutant, Comb Duck, Falcated Duck, Spot-billed Duck, Cotton Pigmy Goose, Baer's Pochard, Bailon's Crake, Ruddy Crake, Greater Painted Snipe, Pheasant-tailed Jacana, Yellow-wattled Lapwing, Indian Courser, Black-bellied Tern, Imperial Eagle, White-tailed Eagle, Lesser Kestrel, Bristle Grassbird, Striated Grassbird etc.

Day to Day Itinerary

  • Day 01: Arrival and transfer to the hotel and further program of jungle activities
  • Day 02: Jungle Activities:
  • Day 03: Jungle Activities
  • Day 04: Depature

Detail Itineraries

  • Day 01Arrival and transfer to the hotel and further program of jungle activitiesAfter welcome formalities from the hotel, we will receive a short briefing from the hotel manager or from our naturalist, about the lodge and their facilities and programs. After lunch, our nature guide updates us about the timing, then after we will take part in our jungle activities:
    -15:00 Lunch break
    -16:30 Guided Nature walk
    -17:00 Sunset views from the riverside the Terai
    -18:30 Slideshow
    -19:00 Dinner
  • Day 02Jungle Activities:The day starts very early today. After tea or coffee, we will walk along jungle for bird watching. Around after 2 hours of walking, we will be back to the hotel for breakfast. Around nine o’clock, we will be ready gradually for full day excursion with our packed lunch. Today we have to take a boat as well as jeep drive to spot the wildlifes, including the avifauna, reptiles, insects, fishes, dolphin (Gangetic Dolphins), mammals including Aranas (wild buffalos) and other hundreds of wildlife. In between, we will make an excursion to the Pink Tower.
    Time Table and Program
    - 05:30 Wake up calls
    - 05:45 Tea/Coffee
    - 06:00 Jungle walks for bird watching
    - 08:00. Breakfast
    - 09:00. Cannoning /boating / swimming and bath
    - 13:00. Lunch (packed Lunch)
    - 15:00. Visit waterfalls/ bird watching
    - 18:30 Return to lodge/slide show
    - 19:30. Dinner
  • Day 03Jungle ActivitiesToday also we have jungle activities. Our nature guide meets us at seven take us to the jungle to explore the morning atmosphere of the surroundings of the reserve. Our packed lunch is prepared to take away. Now, we will drive to reserve to spot the wildlife. Bird watching, inside the reserve is a main remarkable event of the day today. Most designated areas of the bird watching from reserve are the grasslands, wetland and dam area of Koshi river; hundreds of species of birds are visible here, including swamp partridge, black necked stork, buntings, Bulbuls etc. In the afternoon we have two choices, either continue to bird watching or enjoying as optional, the elephant ride to watch Arna, the wild water buffalo, blue bull, hog deer, fishing etc.
    Time Table and Program
    - 06:30 A.M. Wake up call
    - 07:00 Explore around the reserve
    - 08:00 Breakfast
    - 09:00 Bird watching with our naturalist/swimming and bathing
    - 13:00 Lunch
    - 15:30 Continuing the bird watching with our naturalist /or as optional, the elephant safari.
    - 18:30 Slide show program
    - 19:00 Dinner
  • Day 04DepatureEarly in the morning, we can either enjoy bird watching around the camp or have leisure time. After breakfast we will prepare to return back from the reserve toward the next destination.
    Time Table and Programs
    - Morning free for to prepare luggage and to watch the birds near to lodge.
    - 8:00 Breakfast and transfer to next destination
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